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Chimie intégrative pour la conception de matériaux poreux fonctionnels avancés et applications

Abstract : Mainly induced by the wide scope of expected applications, designing hierarchical porous architectures appears today as a strong and competitive field of research. The opportunity to combine the structural advantages of both macropores (diameters larger than 50 nm), providing interconnected framework while reducing the diffusion low kinetic issue, with those of the more narrow pores (meso and micropores), generating high surface reactive areas, has induced a need for novel synthetic routes to achieve hierarchical structures. In this view, by combining soft mater (lyotropic mesophases, concentrated direct emulsions or organic-organic self-assemblies, etc.), sol-gel process, organic polymerization and hard-template approaches, we have generated new functional porous materials, fitting with the transversal integrative chemistry concept. In a first general approach, organically grafted silica foams have been designed, either by a grafting method or a one-pot co-condensation route of organosilane derivatives, to encapsulate luminescent complexes (europium ions), metallic catalysts entrapped into supported ionic liquid phase (palladium salts or nanoparticules) or bio-related entities (water-soluble enzymes: lipases), dealing with promising optical, catalytic or biocatalytic properties. In a second synthetic pathway, using siliceous foams as "sacrificial" hard templates, carbonaceous foams have been obtained addressed through a structural design over several length scales. Due to inherent high surface area, chemical inertness, thermal stability and good conductivity, this new foams series has offered a large field of applications, such as electrodes for electrochemical energy storage devices (Li-ion batteries and electrochemical double-layer capacitors), host sites for hydrogen storage through LiBH4 nucleation, as well as advanced porous electrodes for enzyme-based biofuel cells.
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Nicolas Brun. Chimie intégrative pour la conception de matériaux poreux fonctionnels avancés et applications. Matériaux. Université Sciences et Technologies - Bordeaux I, 2010. Français. ⟨tel-00593936⟩

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