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Contraintes GPS sur la tectonique actuelle du sud-ouest de la Bulgarie, de la Grèce du nord et de l'Albanie

Abstract : The investigation in the present thesis is focused on the South Balkan extensional region using Global Positioning System (GPS) technique. The GPS-derived velocity field from 225 episodic and continuous GPS stations covering the territory of Central and East Mediterranean for the period 1996-2009 has been analysed and discussed in the context of present-day tectonics block models. The geodynamic processes in the region of Southwest Bulgaria (SWB) and Northern Greece (NG) are investigated by GPS measurements acquired during a 12-year (1996-2008) period. SWB and NG are recent active tectonic and seismotectonic regions. The SWB is the most active seismic region of the Bulgarian territory - in the Krupnik – Kresna region one of the most catastrophic earthquakes in continental Europe during the last two centuries occurred in 1904. NG is an area with widespread seismic activity ranging from low to high with destructive earthquakes of M≥6.0 from historical to recent times. The obtained velocity field of the Earth's crust is represented by 34 points in SWB and 21 points in NG encompassing the region. The results show southward displacements between 2-10 mm/yr. The strain rates for the region obtained by GPS measurement for the region are presented and discussed together with seismological events. By comparision to the geological and seismotectonic data, the results obtained from the GPS observations confirm the present-day activity of the fault structures and the dominating extension to the north-south. This extension is in agreement with the regional tectonic model of the East Mediterranean. The current tectonics of Albania is documented by neotectonics indices and by a large number of medium size earthquakes. The focal mechanisms suggest the existence of current shortening across the external Albanides whereas the internal Albanides are affected by E-W to N-S extension. To investigate the kinematics of the Albanides, we integrate continuous and episodic GPS measurements with focal mechanisms from the Regional Centroid Moment Tensor catalogue. This study has allowed distinguishing a western Albania affected by westward motions relative to the Apulia microplate, illustrating the ongoing collision of external Albanides, whereas inner Albanides present southward motion relative to both Apulia and stable Eurasia. The Skutar-Pesh Fault Zone, between Dinarides and Albanides, is identified as the possible northern limit of an area including Albania and western Greece, affected by a clockwise rotation relative to Apulia and also the northern limit of the Balkans (inner Albanides, Macedonia, Bulgaria) affected by southward motion relative to Apulia and stable Eurasia. The other transverse fault zone of the Albanides, the Diber-Elbasani fault, appears to be affected mainly by a moderate extension. Compilation of the published GPS data with our data set allows to identify the external-inner Albanides limit as the western border of the domain (inner Albania, northern Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria) affected by southward displacements relative to stable Eurasia, whereas Skutar-Pesh fault probably forms also its northern limit. The analysis of the velocity field for the whole studied area leads to the hypothesis of a continuous deformation to the detriment of local deformation at the borders of stable blocks.
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Krasimir Matev. Contraintes GPS sur la tectonique actuelle du sud-ouest de la Bulgarie, de la Grèce du nord et de l'Albanie. Sciences de la Terre. Université de Grenoble; National Institute of Geophysics, Geodesy and Geography, Sofia, Bulgarie, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011GRENU015⟩. ⟨tel-00593731⟩

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