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Vectorisation des analogues de nucléosides pour le traitement des métastases

Abstract : Nucleoside analogues (NA) are important agents in the treatment of haematological malignancies and solid tumours. Their rapid catabolism, cell resistance and overdistribution in the body jeopardize the NA chemotherapy. Our objective is to design a vector for these molecules targeting cancerous tissue and ensuring its cellular internalization and protection in the biological media. Micro-sized, nano-sized and molecular vectors were developed and characterized: polymeric microparticles of poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL), multilamellar liposomes and inclusion complexes of the prodrug of cytarabine (Ara-C), which is active on some cell types resistant to treatment, the AraC-SATE (bis(tbutyl-S-acyl-2-thioethyl)-cytidine monophosphate).The microparticles were prepared by the "double emulsion - solvent evaporation" method using as surfactants, amphiphilic copolymers consisting of biodegradable blocks (PCL) and bio-removable blocks (polyethylene glycol, PEG). A series of copolymers mPEG-PCL with PCL blocks of different molecular weights was synthesized and the effect of PCL chain length on the particle physico-chemical properties was studied. Satisfactory encapsulation efficiency could be obtained, which was 10 times greater than that of microparticles prepared with PCL alone. Liposomes were prepared by the ethanol injection method. A formulation study was conducted in order to select the formula having the optimal encapsulation efficiency. Investigations about the cell internalization and the aerodynamic behaviour of the nebulized liposomes showed the relevance of developed liposomes for targeting lung cells that could be of great interest for the treatment of metastases in the lungs. The molecular encapsulation of the AraC-SATE in the hydroxyporpyl-β-cyclodextrin was carried out in order to increase the apparent solubility of the prodrug. The evaluation of inclusion complexes on murine leukemic cell cultures showed a cytotoxic activity comparable to that of the prodrug indicating that the molecular inclusion does not alter the biological activity of the prodrug.
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Roudayna Diab. Vectorisation des analogues de nucléosides pour le traitement des métastases. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I, 2009. Français. ⟨NNT : 2009LYO10252⟩. ⟨tel-00591984⟩

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