Empirical analysis of wireless sensor networks

Abstract : Wireless sensor networks are the collection of wireless nodes that are deployed to monitor certain phenomena of interest. Once the node takes measurements it transmits to a base station over a wireless channel. The base station collects data from all the nodes and do further analysis. To save energy, it is often useful to build clusters, and the head of each cluster communicates with the base station. Initially, we do the simulation analysis of the Zigbee networks where few nodes are more powerful than the other nodes. The results show that in the mobile heterogeneous sensor networks, due to phenomenon orphaning and high cost of route discovery and maintenance, the performance of the network degrades with respect to the homogeneous network. The core of this thesis is to empirically analyze the sensor network. Due to its resource constraints, low power wireless sensor networks face several technical challenges. Many protocols work well on simulators but do not act as we expect in the actual deployments. For example, sensors physically placed at the top of the heap experience Free Space propagation model, while the sensors which are at the bottom of the heap have sharp fading channel characteristics. In this thesis, we show that impact of asymmetric links in the wireless sensor network topology and that link quality between sensors varies consistently. We propose two ways to improve the performance of Link Quality Indicator (LQI) based algorithms in the real asymmetric link sensor networks. In the first way, network has no choice but to have some sensors which can transmit over the larger distance and become cluster heads. The number of cluster heads can be given by Matérn Hard-Core process. In the second solution, we propose HybridLQI which improves the performance of LQI based algorithm without adding any overhead on the network. Later, we apply theoretical clustering approaches in sensor network to real world. We deploy Matérn Hard Core Process and Max-Min cluster Formation heuristic on real Tmote nodes in sparse as well as highly dense networks. Empirical results show clustering process based on Matérn Hard Core Process outperforms Max-Min Cluster formation in terms of the memory requirement, ease of implementation and number of messages needed for clustering. Finally, using Absorbing Markov chain and measurements we study the performance of load balancing techniques in real sensor networks.
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Other [cs.OH]. Institut National des Télécommunications, 2010. English. 〈NNT : 2010TELE0016〉
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Ashish Gupta. Empirical analysis of wireless sensor networks. Other [cs.OH]. Institut National des Télécommunications, 2010. English. 〈NNT : 2010TELE0016〉. 〈tel-00589606〉



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