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Bruit rayonné par un écoulement subsonique affleurant une cavité cylindrique : caractérisation expérimentale et simulation numérique par une approche multidomaine d'ordre élevé

Abstract : Cavity noise is a very frequent phenomenon in air transport. It occurs in particular during landing approaches, where airframe-flow interactions are responsible for strong tonal emissions. Accordingly, it turns to be a non negligible source of acoustic pollution for populations living near airport areas. Numerical and experimental studies reported in the literature tackle essentially the case of rectangular cavities. Nevertheless, cavities may often exhibit more complex shapes in practice. When subject to aerodynamic excitations, and because of their geometrical specificity, these cavities may have acoustic responses which can be rather far from estimations resulting from academic models designed for rectangular cavities. Only asmall number of studies tackle the case of cylindrical cavities.The present work requested by Airbus is dedicated to the study of aeroacoustics in cylindrical cavities. This work was been supported by the Fondation de Recherche pour l'Aéronautique& l'Espace (FRAE) under contract reference AEROCAV. It aims at discerning the mechanisms responsible for strong and tonal acoustic emissions for the studied configurations.Experimental data resulting from measurements performed in the anechoic wind-tunnel of the Centre Acoustique at 'Ecole Centrale de Lyon are presented in a first part. A semi-empirical model based on the hypothesis of a shear-layer driven acoustic resonance is constructed from the Elder model (1978). The model provides an estimation of the frequences which are likely to be predominant in the far-field acoustics, given the mean streamwise velocity field, currently measured in the flow plane by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV).A second part deals with the direct computation of the noise radiated by a laminar or turbulent grazing flow over a standard cylindrical cavity. The method consists in the calculationof the acoustic field directly from the resolution of the tridimensional Navier-Stokes equations. The Alesia solver is presented in a modified form, adapted to the implementationof a high-order chimera method involving several overlapping grids. Interpolation techniques have been specifically developed to achieve a bidirectional communication between the meshes in spite of strong geometrical constraints. A flow excitation model has also been constructed in order to obtain fluctuations into the incoming flow in the turbulent case. These two last points make the present computations original. The simulations, which are performed on a cavity of geometric ratio taken as 1 and subject to a grazing flow of Mach 0.2, reveal that it is possible to retrieve the radiated noise numerically with high fidelity. They indicate the presence of two large amplifying vortices in the shearlayer. These vortices go with strong velocity fluctuations giving rise to an inflow of fluid at the cavity mouth which excites the cavity acoustically. A forced acoustic resonance occurs into the cavity, then destabilises the shear layer near the separation point. This self-sustained coupling is responsible for strong tonal radiations from the cavity. The frequency of the radiated noise is close to the one predicted by the semi-empirical model.
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Damien Desvigne. Bruit rayonné par un écoulement subsonique affleurant une cavité cylindrique : caractérisation expérimentale et simulation numérique par une approche multidomaine d'ordre élevé. Sciences de l'ingénieur [physics]. Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010ECDL0036⟩. ⟨tel-00589006⟩

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