Abstract : The lead zirconate titanate PbZrTiO3 (PZT) of perovskite structure are widely used in the electronics industry due to their excellent dielectric and electromechanical properties. The current context of technological innovation is the miniaturization and lightening of products while ensuring greater reliability. Today is the era of nanotechnology and at this scale, the effects of interface Electrode/Ferroelectric on the properties of the structures classically called MIM (Metal/Insulator/Metal) become substantial. This thesis aims at studying these effects on the properties of PZT thin films deposited by rf magnetron sputtering. The study is based on modeling of the MIM structure as capacitances in series : the ferroelectric capacitance and those of non-ferroelectric interfaces. Experimental investigations have shown that size effects are caused by the interface effects that are the manifestation of the interface capacitance charged by an internal potential. The nature [oxide (LaNiO3) or metal (Pt)] of the top electrode has a significant influence in terms of size effects (on the parameters εr, Ec, d33eff) while the bottom one mainly affects the microstructure of the PZT layer. LNO (a perovskite oxide) is a promising material for limiting the interface effects. The ferroelectric fatigue which is correlated with size effects is a consequence of degradation of the interface. The LNO/PZT/LNO structure has good fatigue endurance and is less prone to size effects. A modeling of fatigue has been proposed from experimental data. The final stage of this thesis has highlighted the effect of the nature of the substrate on the growth mode and the electrical properties of PZT films.