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Evolution des stratégies de reproduction de parasitoïdes de drosophiles en réponse au climat

Abstract : In this thesis, we investigated (1) the relative role of climate and biotic factors varying with climate in the selection of local adaptations of drosophila parasitoids (2) how the phenotypic plasticity of life history traits has evolved in reponse to the environment and egg maturation strategies of these organisms. Contrarily to the primary consumers in which evolution of life histories is directly affected by temperature, biotic factors varying with climate, such as host distribution and interspecific competition may be the principal agent of natural selection in parasitoids. Host distribution may explain the very strong variations that we observed, such as the existence of proovigenic and synovigenic populations in a same species and populations able or not to synthesise lipids during adult life. This last intraspecific variation may have affected trade-offs between traits and the evolution of metabolic rate. Strong variations in the level of phenotypic plasticity were also observed. Variability of the environment of origin explained these variations whereas life histories of organisms did not. To predict evolution of parasitic wasps in response to the global warming, biotic factors and environmental variability depending on climate should thus be integrated, and not only climate.
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Submitted on : Friday, April 22, 2011 - 3:21:50 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-00588250, version 1


Joffrey Moiroux. Evolution des stratégies de reproduction de parasitoïdes de drosophiles en réponse au climat. Ecologie, Environnement. Université Rennes 1, 2010. Français. ⟨tel-00588250⟩



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