Partitions aléatoires et théorie asymptotique des groupes symétriques, des algèbres d'Hecke et des groupes de Chevalley finis

Abstract : During this thesis, we have studied models of random partitions stemming from the representation theory of the symmetric groups and the classical finite Chevalley groups, in particular the groups GL(n,Fq). We have shown results of gaussian concentration in the case of:- q-Plancherel measures (of type A), that correspond to the action of GL(n,Fq) on the variety of complete flags of (Fq)^n, and are related to the representation theory of the Hecke algebras of the symmetric groups.- the analogue in type B of the aforementioned model, that corresponds to the action of Sp(2n,Fq) on the variety of complete totally isotropic flags in (Fq)^2n.- Schur-Weyl measures, that correspond to the two commuting actions of GL(N,C) and Sn on the space of n-tensors of a vector space of dimension N.- Gelfand measures, that correspond to the representation of the symmetric group which is the multiplicity-free direct sum of all irreducible representations of Sn.In each case, we have established a law of large numbers and a central limit theorem similar to the law of large numbers of Logan-Shepp-Kerov-Vershik (1977) and to Kerov's central limit theorem (1993) for the Plancherel measures of the symmetric groups. Almost all our results can be restated in terms of combinatorics of words, and besides, the tools of the proofs are inspired by the usual techniques of random matrix theory. Hence, we have computed for each model the expectation of polynomial functions on partitions, that play a role similar to the tracial polynomials in random matrix theory. The principal tool of the proofs is therefore an algebra of observables of diagrams, that can also be interpreted as an algebra of partial permutations. We have tried to generalize this construction to the case of other groups and algebras, and we have constructed such a generalization in the case of the Hecke algebras of the symmetric groups. These constructions belong to the abstract setting of semilattice bundles over semigroups; in the same setting, one can formalize combinatorial problems on permutations, for instance the problem of computing the Hurwitz numbers
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Pierre-Loïc Méliot. Partitions aléatoires et théorie asymptotique des groupes symétriques, des algèbres d'Hecke et des groupes de Chevalley finis. Mathématiques générales [math.GM]. Université Paris-Est, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010PEST1033⟩. ⟨tel-00587770⟩

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