Structure et Evolution du Génome Mitochondrial des Oniscidea (Crustacea, Isopoda)

V. Doublet 1
1 EES - Ecologie, Evolution, Symbiose
EBI - Ecologie et biologie des interactions
Abstract : In animals, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is generally composed of ~16 kb circular monomer molecules. However, two species of terrestrial Crustaceans Armadillidium vulgare and Porcellionides pruinosus (Isopoda: Oniscidea) are exceptions. Their mtDNA is composed of ~14 kb linear monomers associated to ~28 kb circular head-to-head dimers. In order to describe its structure, the complete mtDNA sequence of A. vulgare has been obtained. It does contain the 13 protein coding genes and the 2 ribosomal sub-units generally found in metazoan mtDNA, but not all of the 22 expected transfer RNA (tRNAs). Besides, a surprising heteroplasmy that generates a dual tRNA alloacceptor for both amino acids Alanine and Valine (tRNAAla/Val) has been discovered. This heteroplasmy by the presence of two different genes on a single mitochondrial locus is an unique example in eukaryotes. Interestingly, this heteroplasmy has been observed in a wide range of Oniscidea species carrying an atypical mtDNA. The appearance of the atypical mitochondrial genome in isopods may have permit the appearance of the tRNAAla/Val, and evolutionary forces that allow the maintenance of these two genes essential for mitochondrial translation might conserve the atypical structure of mtDNA.
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Submitted on : Friday, April 15, 2011 - 4:09:11 PM
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V. Doublet. Structure et Evolution du Génome Mitochondrial des Oniscidea (Crustacea, Isopoda). Ecologie, Environnement. Université de Poitiers, 2010. Français. ⟨tel-00586370⟩

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