Abstract : This thesis highlighted the importance of lipid-based carriers and their pharmaceutical implications in the delivery of drugs of different nature for dermal and oral administration. The general introduction provided an overview of the types of lipid-based delivery systems with more emphasis on solid lipid nanoparticles ( SLN ) and lipid nanocapsules ( LNC ). In the first part, Clobetasol propionate ( CP )-loaded SLNs were prepared to improve the performance of long term topical corticosteroid therapy. Skin permeation ex-vivo data indicated that the skin retention of CP increased using the SLN test hydrogel formulation more than that a commercial gel. The second part focused on LNCs. Chapter 1 of this part aimed at encapsulating the hydrophilic macromolecule, fondaparinux ( F ), into LNCs by a novel patented two microemulsion ( ME ) strategy. This is based on the incorporation of a precarrier F-loaded ME into a second ME prepared using the phase inversion temperature plus temperature cycling methodology. LNCs formulated using Imwitor/Span were the best ( 59 nm and 48% incorporation efficiency). Chapter 2 aimed at enhancing the loading of anionic F by using cationic LNCs (~50 nm and 80-100% entrapment efficiency). In vivo study in rats administered F-loaded LNCs orally in comparison with a solution market product demonstrated that caionic LNCs significantly increased F bioavaibility and anti-factor Xa effect in a dose-dependent fashion. Data provided a proof of concept for the potential oral bioavailability of F. This offers great promise for a more convenient chronic anticoagulant therapy replcing the currently used injections.