Abstract : Structural equation modelling is a widespread approach in a variety of domains and is first applied here to interlaboratory comparisons in metrology. Structural Equation Models with latent variables (SEM) are multivariate models used to model causality relationships in observed variables (the data). It is assumed that data can be grouped into separate blocks each describing a latent concept modelled by a latent variable. The correlation structure of the observed variables is transferred into the correlation structure of the latent variables. A Bayesian approach of SEM is proposed based on the analysis of the correlation matrix of latent variables using parameter expansion to overcome identifiability issues and improving the convergence of the Gibbs sampler. SEM is used as a powerful and flexible tool to model measurement bias with the aim of improving the reliability of the consensus value and its associated uncertainty in a fully Bayesian framework. The approach also allows to compute the contributions of the observed variables to the bias of the laboratories, under additional hypotheses. More generally a global Bayesian framework is proposed to improve the quality of measurements. The approach is illustrated on the structural equation modelling of measurement bias in interlaboratory comparisons in environment.