Abstract : This thesis aims at handling the electromagnetic field at a quantum scale in the area of quantum information processing. For this purpose we mixed tools of discrete variable quantum optics, where light is described in terms of photons, with the continuous approach, which uses the quadratures of the field. This technique enables the production of non-classical states which should be described by Wigner functions that takes negative values. We have generated entangled states from ultra-short light pulses initially independent and which can be separated by a long distance: the entanglement is indeed performed through a low-transmission channel. Then we have experimentally demonstrated and characterized a protocol that non-deterministically amplifies low signals without amplifying the quantum noise, increasing the signal to noise ratio. Furthermore we experimentally implement and compared several measures of the non-gaussianity of a quantum state: this characteristic, which belongs to continuous description of light, is of essential interest for quantum information processing. Finally we develop and test two improvements for our setup. The first one is a femtosecond amplifier for our pulsed laser. It will enable us to obtain better primitive states for our experiments. The second one is an apparatus that can discriminate the number of photon in a pulse, giving more accurate results than the detectors we used up to now that are only able to detect the presence of photons.