Comparer les morphogénèses urbaines en Europe et aux États-Unis par la simulation à base d'agents -- Approches multi-niveaux et environnements de simulation spatiale

Thomas Louail 1
1 COSMO
IBISC - Informatique, Biologie Intégrative et Systèmes Complexes
Abstract : The multilevel comparison of spatial and hierarchical organisations of urban systems over the world highlights some generic and universal properties (rank-size law, center-periphery structure) but also a variety of more specific patterns (in terms of spatial repartition of populations, densities, prices, activities, etc.). The spatial economy and the urban evolutionnary theory both focus on the explanation of the emergence of such patterns, but the simulation models they support classicaly consider one level of spatial organisation only, respectively intra- and inter-urban. Understanding and reconstructing those levels' interdependancies is a crucial issue for long-term sustainable urban planning. This thesis presents a set of models and tools that are dedicated to the study of this question through agent-based simulation. They have been developed in the context of the Simpop project, and particulary on the comparison of the morphogenesis of urban systems in Europe and in the United States over the period 1800-2000. These tools include the simpopNano agent-based model, and some experimentation modules gathered in an extensible and generic GIS-based platform, which is dedicated to a systematic, collective and intelligent exploration of spatial simulation models. Together they reinforce the idea that the sole difference of topology of the streets networks could be sufficient to generate some more diluted spatial repartitions, as observed in US cities when compared to european ones. This intra-urban model is then articulated with an inter-urban one, Simpop2, in a multilevel model. The latter serves to engage a comparison among a variety of approaches in agent-based simulation litterature for integrating models of multiple levels of abstraction.
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Thomas Louail. Comparer les morphogénèses urbaines en Europe et aux États-Unis par la simulation à base d'agents -- Approches multi-niveaux et environnements de simulation spatiale. Modélisation et simulation. Université d'Evry-Val d'Essonne, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010EVRY0013⟩. ⟨tel-00584495⟩

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