Abstract : The achievement of new very high spatial resolution sensors allows studying more precisely the cities. For those studies the knowledge of the atmosphere and particularly of the aerosols can be fundamental. The goal of this thesis is so to develop an aerosol characterisation method adapted to urban remote sensing images of metric scale acquired in the visible and near-infrared spectral domains. First, the aerosols optical properties have been studied from 68 urban stations of the AERONET network. Then, a 3D radiative transfer code, AMARTIS v2, has been developed in order to evaluate the aerosols impact on the signal in urban medium. This tool has allowed the quantification of the particles impact on the signal for a typical urban scene, both in the shadow and in the sun, depending on their optical properties. Finally, an aerosols remote sensing method has been defined, based on the observation of shadow/sun transitions. To use this technique, an inversion code has been developed: OSIS. A sensibility study of OSIS has been performed from AMARTIS v2 synthetic images and an experimental use has been done from PELICAN images acquired during the MUSARDE airborne campaign over Toulouse. Those studies have allowed quantifying the intrinsic precision of OSIS that is similar to the precision of satellite products, and to show the possibility of applying such method to every very high spatial resolution instrument, multispectral or hyperspectral, airborne or spaceborne.