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Conséquences écologiques et évolutives du flux de gènes entre Brassica napus transgénique et ses apparentés sauvages

Abstract : In the framework of commercial release for transgenic crops with novel traits, consequences of gene flow and introgression are still one main concern. I explored the ecological and evolutionary consequences of gene flow between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and its wild relatives, brown mustard (B. juncea) and wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum), through several experiments carried out in greenhouse, common garden and field in Beijing and Dijon. First, I revised a comprehensive review of the literature about gene flow and its effect on plant fitness in the Brassiceae. Second, I investigated the effects on gene flow of seed size of hybrids between Bt-transgenic oilseed rape and mustard. Small seed size significantly reduced plant growth and reproduction, but its influence on plant fitness varied among genetic backgrounds. Backcrosses to oilseed rape were easier and more productive than other types of progeny of hybrids. Most of these plants exhibited oilseed rape morphology. Together with herbicide-resistance, this trait could help the progeny to survive in the field and disseminate the transgene to volunteers and feral populations, which could be more troublesome than completing introgression into the genome of the wild parent species. Third, I simulated herbivory on mustard to study the competition between insect-resistant and susceptible plants independently to the fitness of the interspecific hybrid. Resistant plants held a competitive advantage under herbivory pressure, and this advantage was magnified in harsh conditions, such as low resources and high simulated herbivory pressure. The use of insects to attack mixed populations composed of transgenic Bt-resistant and susceptible backcrosses confirmed the same conclusion and provided evidence of no cost due to the transgene in the absence of insect. The overall population production increased with the increasing proportion of insect-resistant plants in the presence of insects. Fourth, wild radish populations were sampled from four geographically distant regions, of which one region had a long history of oilseed rape cultivation, and, therefore, higher chance to have been submitted to interspecific hybridization with the crop. Traits divergence and polymorphism in the putative introgressed populations could be supported as alternate hypothesis to random variation, although the differences were not marked enough to place these populations out of the range of variation described in wild radish. These studies pointed out different factors that could enhance the risk of transgenic flow and introgression from transgenic crops to wild relatives, and they must be taken into account in the risk assessment of the use of GM crops: crop traits to identify the hybrid progeny and perform monitoring, small seed size to account for seed dispersal and dormancy, and intensity of herbivory and competition that magnify the fitness advantage of insect-resistant transgenic plants. However, the impact of introgression to create super-weeds was not supported.
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Yongbo Liu. Conséquences écologiques et évolutives du flux de gènes entre Brassica napus transgénique et ses apparentés sauvages. Biologie végétale. Université de Bourgogne, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010DIJOS028⟩. ⟨tel-00584017⟩

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