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Etude des relations entre la structure des molécules odorantes et leurs équilibres rétention-libération entre phase vapeur et gels laitiers

Abstract : An integrated approach physicochemistry and structures activity relationships has been carried out to study the aroma compounds retention-release phenomenon in a fat free dairy gel added with pectin. This study aimed to identify the molecular properties that govern this phenomenon assuming that modifying the structure leads automatically to a change in the retention-release of aroma compounds. For this purpose, we have determined the partition coefficients of 28 aroma compounds in water, in pectin gels and in dairy gels supplemented or not supplemented with pectin, at equilibrium conditions using the PRV method (Phase Ratio Variation). Then, we have performed a structure-retention relationships study for the aroma compounds by estimating correlations between the partition coefficients and four descriptors representing four molecular properties: Global hydrophobicity, molecular area, polarizability and negative charge density. Our methodology concerning the structure-activity relationships study (SAR) consisted on studying a varied range of aroma compounds in terms of molecular structure, first taking into account all of them in the same set, then in separated subgroups according to a given structural particularity in order to reveal which structural particularities control the retention-release phenomenon. The comparison of retention between the several media has not shown any effect of pectin. Structure-activity relationships studies have shown the impact of some structural particularities like branching and double linking. They have also shown that the global hydrophobicity was not the best molecular property to explain the phenomena involved in the interactions between aroma compounds and matrix components (water and dairy gel). Molecular area and polarizability are more likely to report of aroma retention-release. Correlations implying molecular area, polarizability or global hydrophobicity confirm that van der Waals (especially Keesom and London) are involved in the retention in dairy gels and unfavourable in the retention in water. Correlations implying negative charge density show that polar interactions are favourable in the retention in water as well. Our strategy which consisted on varying the structure of aroma compounds to exanimate its effect on the retention-release phenomenon was found to be effective, and the set of 28 aroma compounds allowed as leading a quantitative structure-property relationships study. This QSAR approach can be transposed to simple or complex food systems.
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Yacine Merabtine. Etude des relations entre la structure des molécules odorantes et leurs équilibres rétention-libération entre phase vapeur et gels laitiers. Alimentation et Nutrition. Université de Bourgogne, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010DIJOS022⟩. ⟨tel-00583420⟩

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