La présence en réalité virtuelle, une approche centrée utilisateur

Abstract : We present a new theoretical context for virtual reality: virtual reality is defined as a mediated experience which is able to generate a feeling of presence. The latter is delimited as the genuine feeling to exist in a different world than the physical world where the body is located. We propose a new and comprehensive light on the feeling of presence through a unified approach of presence with technological, psychological and ecological considerations. We have developed a model which explains the processes leading to presence. According to our model, two unconscious stages of judgment govern the emergence of presence. The first judgment refers to the credibility of the virtual environment. The latter depends on the satisfaction of intellectual and perceptual user’s expectation. The second judgment deals with the credibility of the experience and is positive if most affordances perceived in the virtual environment are taken up, that means achievable with the interaction schemes offered to the user. We have conducted a study to assess the relevance and the consistency of our model. This model has some interesting repercussions like to be an analytical grid for video games. Moreover, it suggests to virtual reality developers that they should think in terms of affordances. This last idea involves to take into consideration the user very early in the design loop of the virtual reality experience. Our whole conception of virtual reality and presence has been put in practice during the design of low-cost ans easily transportable virtual reality systems. Based on this theoretical content we introduce a virtual reality application framework. Since the objective is the credibility, and not the realism of the environment and of the experience, we take an interest in the perceptual reality and not in its physical reality. This is why the starting point of our framework is a knowledge base on human cognition. The latter act as an idea pool for the four inter-related technical and psychological pillars upon which virtual reality developers can lean on. These pillars are immersion, interaction, emotions and a fourth one including the sensori-motor loop and the multimodality. Concerning the immersion pillar we introduce a new algorithm to compute sound reverberation in complex and dynamic virtual environment. Our method relies on the existing algorithm called frustum tracing but we provide two optimizations. The first one makes the most of the knowledge base on human cognition in order to work out a sphere of sound acuity. This information acts as a template in order to shoot the frusta from the listener and not from sound sources. This second optimization reduces the number of computations
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Patrice Bouvier. La présence en réalité virtuelle, une approche centrée utilisateur. Autre [cs.OH]. Université Paris-Est, 2009. Français. ⟨NNT : 2009PEST1035⟩. ⟨tel-00581550⟩

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