Abstract : One of fundamental problems in human cardiac diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) is its poor spatial resolution, due to the hardware limitations of MRI scanners. The main purpose of this PhD work is to develop new approaches to improving the resolution of cardiac DT-MRI data in order to better understand the myocardial architecture of the heart and compare it with results issues from other investigation techniques such as polarized light imaging. Within this framework, the present work is composed of three main parts. The first part concerns a new approach to interpolating primary eigenvector fields from human cardiac DT-MRI using Thin Plate Spline (TPS) model. This approach removes the noise-corrupted vectors rather than denoising the whole vector field in a uniform manner, and uses TPS model in order to exploit the correlation between vector components during interpolation. The second part is dealt with a new category of feature-based methods for diffusion tensor field interpolation using either Euler angles or quaternion. These feature-based methods well preserve tensor parameters, such as tensor determinant, fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values. In this part are also compared the main interpolation approaches at the level of diffusion weighted images and tensor fields. The results show that the interpolation of DT-MRI data should be performed at the level of tensor fields. The last part investigates changes in MD and FA after myocardial infarction in porcine hearts, and the influence of diffusion tensor interpolation methods on FA and MD in both infarction and remote region. It is found that the infarction region showed significantly decreased FA and increased MD than the remote region, and that diffusion tensor interpolations have more significant influence on FA than on MD, which suggests that precaution should be taken when performing the clinical analysis based on the parameters after diffusion tensor interpolations.