Muskuwaari, immigration et mutations spatio-agricoles en pays guiziga (Extrême-Nord Cameroun)

Abstract : ABSTRACT This study is about spatial and agricultural mutations in the guiziga area in the Far North region of Cameroon. The objective is to understand the present dynamics of this space which a long time, has been qualified as an emigration zone. Today, we realise the colonisation of the last unoccupied spaces and the occupation of interstitial zone between the different guiziga villages, by immigrants coming from the south of the Diamaré plain (toupouri area) to practice muskuwaari culture. If the size of this movement of population is relatively weak than those which are taking part toward the Benue river, it is necessary to underline that, this movement concerns more than 400 families of migrants who are installed since 1990, in more of 20 guiziga villages, distributed in 4 lamidats (Moutourwa, Midjivin, Mindif, Maroua), 3 sub-divisions (Maroua, Moutourwa, Mindif) and one district (Dargala). All of them are situated in the last homogeneous space of the guiziga area. We can say that the new spatial mobility of the population in the Diamaré plain is not negligible because it takes place in an ancian populated area. Before the analysis of the relation between the new spatial mobility of the population in the Diamaré plain and the spatial and agricultural mutations in the guiziga area, it has been necessary to present the new diagram of mobility with a south/north direction in the Diamaré plain, resetting all the rural migratory system of the North of Cameroon. The analysis of data that result from the field observations (investigations, interviews, field data obtained by using GPS and photography, done between 2003 and 2007) and the exploration of documents (archives and scientific works) shows agricultural and territory mutations, new land practices in guiziga area. This is in relation with the recent spatial mobility of the population observed inside the Diamaré plain, characterized by a south/north orientation. At the scale of the exploitation, there are main farming transformations (evolution of the size of the parcels and evolution of the production of the muskuwaari) from one village of immigration to another. The transformation of land practices are characterized by new ways of land access and strategies setting up by the immigrant and autochthonous actors. The example of Barawa Laddé, Mobono and Foulou, villages of immigration methodically chosen, illustrates this point of view. The regional scale permits us to see the construction of an agricultural territory by the migrants beyond the hundred-year-old limits of the lamidats. It is the case of the small village of Mobono which is constructed on two lamidats (Moutourwa and Mindif). The borders of the lamidats are not considered again as obstacles to the extension of agricultural space. We realise also, a re-composition of the immigration territory through its “toupourisation”.
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Félix Watang Zieba. Muskuwaari, immigration et mutations spatio-agricoles en pays guiziga (Extrême-Nord Cameroun). Géographie. Université de Ngaoundéré, 2010. Français. ⟨tel-00578349⟩



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