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Estimation de pose et asservissement de robot par vision omnidirectionnelle

Abstract : This work is about omnidirectional vision, monocular and stereoscopic. Position and orientation estimation of a robot using this kind of artificial vision relies on the same theoretical framework as visual servoing. This technique consists in the control of a robot motion using visual information brought by one or several cameras. This motion is virtual when dealing with pose estimation. Using the wide field of view of omnidirectional vision has generally a good impact on the robot behavior but visual informations, and particularly their representation, influence deeply this behavior. A bad choice can lead the servoing or pose estimation to fail. This thesis aims to study and compare various visual features and their representations in omnidirectional vision. Even if a projection model involving a sphere has been designed for central omnidirectional cameras, a point, a line or a plane are always represented in the image plane. Some works have expressed pose estimation or visual servoing from spherical features but without showing, practically, which surface is the best : image plane or sphere. This is a motivation for this work. This work also proposes to use pixel intensities of an omnidirectional image as a visual feature for the servoing of a robot, allowing, hence, to withdraw image processing for the detection of points, lines, and so on. Experimental validation shows a great positioning precision. This is the base of the use of photometric neighborhoods included in a region for the precise plane tracking or neighboring a line for the precise tracking of vertical straight lines. This last contribution is one of the most important of this thesis because it allows to reconstruct a vertical line thanks to the photometric fitting of their projections neighborhoods in omnidirectional stereovision images. Furthermore, it can be extended to motion estimation and to every geometrical feature.
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Contributor : Guillaume Caron <>
Submitted on : Wednesday, March 16, 2011 - 2:07:09 PM
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Guillaume Caron. Estimation de pose et asservissement de robot par vision omnidirectionnelle. Automatique / Robotique. Université de Picardie Jules Verne, 2010. Français. ⟨tel-00577133⟩

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