Abstract : How to approach a national context with the aim to spread an idiom in an adapted way ? How to proceed ? Which factors should one take into account in order to efficiently contextualise the pedagogy ? Those are the questions this thesis tried to answer through a synchronic and diachronic Textbooks being qualitatively and quantitatively prevalent in language teaching, this work decided to deal with the complexity of its object through a survey of their uses. Indeed, these uses represent a conjunction point for the different actors of French as a foreign language teaching. They are necessarily the result of a number of determinisms and strategies. A qualitative research led through interviews and observations combined with a macro and micro ecological approach was chosen as the best-suited process. Thus allowing to shed some light on the multiplicity of the issues and dynamics involved in the teaching and learning of French in Brasil. The comprehension thus constructed presents the complexity of textbooks and offers a The thesis develops a sociodidactical approach of the teaching of languages and its modeling. Its conclusions promote didactical contextualisation and consider its potential applications, in textbooks especially.