Abstract : Architectural design is an intricate process during which the designer handles entities from various kinds. Among them, ambiences figure the interactions between the physical phenomenons and the built environment. In this research, we address the problem of taking into account the ambiences during the architectural design process : which tools are the most suitable to do so ? Firstly, we answer the question from a theoretical point of view. This leads us to show the need of reversing the simulation of the ambiences. The point is to modelize architectural shapes from the designer's intents in terms of ambiences. We propose to solve these inverse problems within the frame of the declarative geometrical modeling approach. We implement this theoretical model for the sunlighting phenomenons. We grasp the limits of direct sunlighting simulation methods into the design process. We introduce a new formalization of the phenomenon as we treat it with the help of the integral geometry. We show that sunlighting problems as a whole, whether they are direct or inverse, can be described as problems of intersection between the objects of a scene and a complex sunbeams volume. This volume is a geometrical artefact which figures a space-time constraint of sunlighting. Its boundaries are determined using the Minkowski sum. These results lead us to propose a declarative model that is able to solve any sunlighting problem. At last, we discuss the ways we can adapt this model to the architectural design practice. We present a demonstration software that brings our proposals together. Three architectural design examples give an illustration of how our system can be used.