Le Moustérien de tradition acheuléenne du sud-ouest de la France. Discussion sur la signification du faciès à partir de l'étude comparée de quatre sites : Pech-de-l'Azé I, Le Moustier, La Rochette et la Grotte XVI.

Abstract : This manuscript presents a set of technological, economical and morphofunctional data for four Mousterian of Acheulian Tradition (MTA) sites from southwest of France. Those sites, two of them being ones which originally defined this facies, are dated to the end of OIS 4 or to the first part of OIS 3 using radiometric dating methods. Analysis of the bifacial pieces show their multi-functionality, their history of resharpening and their use as both tools and cores on sites away from their production location. A new method of producing flakes, characterized by its volumetric organisation and its elongated end products - which are frequently backed - was recognized. Comparison of the techniques and methods used within these MTA sites and others of southwest France shows a unity of technical know-how and knowledge shared by knappers of those industries. However, the organisation of knapping activity within the territory is variable. MTA type A industries show a fragmentation of the operational process within the territory, even when raw material is abundant, while for MTA type B industries the process is done within a time and location unity. Comparison of MTA industries with the central Europe Micoquian demonstrates the originality of the MTA facies from the perspective of how the bifacial pieces were produced and retouched. Thus, two distinct neighbouring cultural unit may be distinguished within the first part of IOS 3: one centred in southwest France, the other in central Europe. Behavioural changes from MTA A to MTA B may be interpreted as changes in mobility patterns, from a more logistical pattern to one that is more residential. The combination of technical and techno-functional characteristics of one of the MTA methods of producing flakes – the production of elongated flakes – is shared with the Chatelperronian, whereas this combination is unknown within Upper Paleolithic industries. This reinforces the idea that the Chatelperronian is derived from MTA. This also confirms the capacity of the Mousterian to develop Upper Paleolithic lithic technologies independent of contact with the first Aurigancian. Finally, the high predetermination and planning of some of the MTA knapping processes diminish the sharp contrast usually seen from the lithic point of view between Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic industries.
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Submitted on : Friday, March 4, 2011 - 11:43:08 AM
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Marie Soressi. Le Moustérien de tradition acheuléenne du sud-ouest de la France. Discussion sur la signification du faciès à partir de l'étude comparée de quatre sites : Pech-de-l'Azé I, Le Moustier, La Rochette et la Grotte XVI.. Sciences de l'Homme et Société. Université Bordeaux I, 2002. Français. ⟨tel-00573675⟩

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