Abstract : The aim of this work is to develop new carbon materials with controlled pore structure and to control the size and the morphology of pore structure during the synthesis step. First we interested to the nanocasting technique and to optimise the synthesis conditions in order to obtain the carbon replica of zeolite EMC-2 (EMT). The use of this zeolite allow to obtain well resolved X-ray diffraction pattern. Then carbon replicas have been obtained by using various zeolites as mould and the optimal conditions defined during the first study. The adsorption and separation capacities of carbon replica of zeolite Y (FAU) have been studied. But this technique is multi-step and it is not possible to obtain large quantities. Also other methods in order to obtain porous carbons have been developped. We interested to the synthesis by self-assembly between surfactant as structuring agent and polymer as carbon precursor. We tried to understand the formation mechanism and the inflence of synthesis parameters. Theses types of synthesis allows to obtain mesoporous silica/carbon composite if silicic precursor is added. Moreover, we studied the synthesis and the characterization of carbon-coated porous silica. The obtained materials have pores with smaller diameters but their surfaces have the same characterics than carbon materials.