Abstract : The thesis aims at studying the strategy of sports clubs through their evolution in the competitive hierarchy. It is based in part on discussion of the contributions of the stakeholder theory, leadership and theory of conventions to propose an analytical model of the strategic dynamics of a club and a typology of strategic configurations. In second part, the thesis confronts this model to a longitudinal study of three basketball clubs on forty years. The three cases allow to analyze four types of strategic configurations : growth, consolidation, redeployment, safeguard.The results of the thesis reveal four types of trajectory corresponding to the succession of different strategic configurations. The inflection points occur when strategy does not achieve the desired effects. The strategic trajectory, sports result oriented, characterizes the strategic dynamics of a club by the sequence of configurations over time.