Abstract : This document summarizes my research works from 2001 until these days. Several publications are given in appendix of each chapter. The document started with the study of the influence of the roughness of the surface on the propagation of guided waves (Lamb waves). The modification of the dispersion curves of the waves is studied in detail. It is notably noticed that the attenuation is linked to the height and periodicity of the roughness. Different approaches are given: experimental, numerical (Finite Element Method) and theoretical. In the following, the wave propagation in periodically corrugated plate is investigated. Several results on a simple case of scalar fields are given (fluid waveguide, SH waves) and then the case of Lamb waves is studied. The coupling of modes due to the presence of a periodical disturbance is more particularly analysed in relation with the band structure (1D phononic crystal). The last part is dedicated to the study of negative refraction in phononic crystals.