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Transition superfluide et potentiels géométriques dans le gaz de Bose bidimensionnel

Abstract : This thesis manuscript is devoted to the two-dimensional Bose gas. The first part reports on the observation of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in a rubidium 87 ultracold gas confined in a combined magnetic and optical potential. The precise localisation of the critical point and the comparison of the data with a theoretical model lead to a better understanding of the role of both the transverse confining potential and the residual excitation of the axial motion. The second part describes a new experimental setup, with which the forthcoming experiments will be performed. The first observations on this setup concern the free expansion in two dimensions of a two-dimensional rubidium 87 gas. This expansion is caracterised by a scaling low, which reveals the nature of the interactions between atoms. The third part explains the use of geometric potentials in a neutral ultracold gas to mimic the action of a magnetic field on charged particles. One can generate these potentials, which are associated with the concept of Berry phase, by coupling the atoms to a laser field. A proposal for an experimental realisation is detailed, which should lead to the nucleation of vortices.
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Contributor : Marc Cheneau Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Friday, January 14, 2011 - 5:45:24 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, November 18, 2021 - 4:11:16 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Friday, December 2, 2016 - 10:33:24 PM


  • HAL Id : tel-00556002, version 1


Marc Cheneau. Transition superfluide et potentiels géométriques dans le gaz de Bose bidimensionnel. Physique Atomique [physics.atom-ph]. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2009. Français. ⟨tel-00556002⟩



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