Abstract : Since the first proposal in 1995 of replacing the polysilicon floating gate of the non volatile memories (NVM) by Si nanocrystals (nc-Si), research in this field is very active. The objective of this study consists in the fabrication of an InAs nanocrystals (nc-InAs) NVM: thus, using InAs allows first the improvement of NVM characteristics thanks to a high electronic affinity, and second, the evaluation of multibits storage in a unique nanocrystal. The nc-InAs have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on a tunnel SiO2 layer on Si. The nc-InAs are monocrystalline and hemispherical. Their height depends on the number of deposited InAs monolayers (from 2 to 10 nm), whereas the density depends on the growth temperature. The maximal density has been evaluated to be 7x1011 cm-2 at a growth temperature of 350 oC. Using MBE, we fabricated MOS structure containing nc-InAs. The write and erase time is 1 us and 100 us, at 12 V and 11 V respectively. The retention time at 85 % for a structure with 3.5 nm tunnel oxide and containing 6 nm in diameter nc-InAs is 45 days. For the best of our knowledge, this is the best result in retention for nc-NVM with 3.5 nm tunnel oxides. By quantum calculations, we demonstrated that the retention time is 2 decades higher in nc-InAs than in nc-Si for MOS structures with identical dimensions. Finally, we showed that a 10 years retention time in NVM can be reached using a 4 nm tunnel oxide and 10 nm in diameter nc-InAs.