Abstract : Many laboratories work on the development of quantum memories, a key element of quantum information systems. The quantum memories for light in particular should play an important role in quantum communication networks over long distances. A quantum memory consists in a set of atoms on which one transposes the state of the light signal, the memory must be able to save this state for a sufficiently long time, then return it faithfully. To date, the effort has focused on protocols related to electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), implemented in clouds of atoms cooled by laser. I work on an alternative system, the rare earth ions in crystalline matrix (TRMC). In this system, atoms are stricltly motionless. Moreover, the lifetime of quantum superposition states, carrying the information is very long at low temperatures. The inhomogeneous broadening of optical transitions, however, clearly distinguishes the TRMC from laser cooled atoms. Taking advantage of this feature, I propose an original storage protocol. I explore the theoretical and experimental sides of this new protocol.