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Evaluation ex ante de systèmes de culture innovants par modélisation agronomique et économique: de la conception à l'adoption. Cas des systèmes de culture bananiers de Guadeloupe.

Abstract : Agricultural production is evolving towards systems able to provide multiple objectives in order tosatisfy the complex concerns related to sustainability, therefore leading agricultural research to bear growing interest in the development of methodologies to allow the design and assessment of innovative cropping and farming systems able to fulfil these constraints. Although the number and the diversity of tools and concepts are increasing, only few transdisciplinary research have been done, therefore limiting the development of methodologies for integrated assessment from the design to the adoption of innovations by farmers. The objective of this thesis is to propose a trandisciplinary method for ex ante assessment of innovative cropping systems in order to palliate this shortcoming in the current research. After a survey of available assessment methodologies, we propose an original method which is made of a four-step approach: i) modelling farm diversity and prototyping innovative cropping systems, ii) use of a crop model to simulate the biophysical impacts of innovations for the different farm types, iii) development of a bio-economic farm model for assessment of the impacts of the adoption of innovations at farm level, and iv) econometric modelling of adoption by farmers. The method was then applied to the design and assessment of innovative cropping systems for banana production in the French West Indies, that are currently facing severe economic and environmental crisis. The first step led to the identification of six contrasting farm types and sixteen cropping systems prototypes, invoving rotation of banana with cover crop, intercropping, and regulation of pesticide use. The second step showed that the performances of innovation may differ greatly among fram types, and some systems appear to be promising from both agronomic and environmental critera. However simulations made in step 3 and 4 showed that promising innovations at field level maight have negative impacts at farm level while some promising innovation have low probability of adoption. Results of econometric model and bio-economic simulations made possible to define a set of proposals for local research and development stakeholders in order to improve the likelihood of adoption of the innovations. In the last chapter we present a critical analysis of the advantages and shortcomings of our approach underling the genericity of the methodology, and the potential extension of its application to other context, for better matching the innovations with society and farmers demands
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Submitted on : Thursday, December 16, 2010 - 10:04:50 PM
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Jean-Marc Blazy. Evaluation ex ante de systèmes de culture innovants par modélisation agronomique et économique: de la conception à l'adoption. Cas des systèmes de culture bananiers de Guadeloupe.. Sciences de la Terre. Ecole nationale superieure agronomique de montpellier - AGRO M, 2008. Français. ⟨tel-00547627⟩

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