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Etude et Réalisation de photodétecteurs de type APD Geiger pixellisés à très haute sensibilité pour l'astronomie gamma Très Haute Energie.

Abstract : Very High Energy gamma ray astronomy uses till now exclusively as detector the Photomultiplier Tube (PMT) to collect weak light flux of atmospheric showers. But an alternative is now emerging: Avalanche Photodiodes polarized in Geiger mode called “Geiger-APD”. The PMT is a detector designed in the 70's which presents many advantages but also suffers from several drawbacks: size, weight, cost, sensitivity to magnetic field but especially difficulty to realize its pixilation in matrix. Geiger-APDs are semi-conductor devices made of PN junction integrated in a special technology to detect very low light flux, thanks to the polarization beyond the avalanche voltage. Geiger-APD presents very high photoelectron gain (≈106) strongly dependant on the polarization voltage beyond avalanche. These photodiodes present many advantages with respect to PMT, mainly as concerns miniaturization for applications based on imaging, such as the detection of Cerenkov flashes in gamma ray astronomy. In this thesis, we present the study, the design and the realization of a technological structure, based on Silicon. This structure has shown reliability to detect weak luminous flux with breakdown voltage at 12V and dark current below 10pA at breakdown. We also developed several models, physical and electrical, necessary to the technological optimization, as well to the development of control and readout circuits, i.e. the basis of any imaging technology. The work presented here consists in the study, the design and the realization of a matrix of high sensitivity pixels. A project of a Cerenkov telescope based on this innovative technology is also presented.
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Submitted on : Thursday, December 16, 2010 - 2:52:29 PM
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Khalil Jradi. Etude et Réalisation de photodétecteurs de type APD Geiger pixellisés à très haute sensibilité pour l'astronomie gamma Très Haute Energie.. Planète et Univers [physics]. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2010. Français. ⟨tel-00547478⟩

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