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Paramètres physiques des ambiances architecturales : Un modèle numérique pour la simulation de la lumière naturelle dans le projet urbain

Abstract : Among the various entities which the architect is brought to handle during the design process, the « ambiances » constitute an eminently intricate field. It consists in the interactions that the user perceive between the physical phenomena and the forms of the built-up areas. The natural light lies precisely within this scope, where individual variability comes to be added to the dynamic aspect of the phenomena. It is manifest that the architects stick in an obvious and permanent way to work on form; however they always do not seem to treat with the same rigour the availability in natural light and the diffuse interactions. The major reasons are undoubtedly the complexity of the concepts approached and a lack of simulation tools. Thus we propose the development of a new software tool, based on a preliminary work of the laboratory CERMA of the School of Architecture of Nantes. It is likely to evaluate in a powerful way the natural light within the architectural and urban project, starting from a three-dimensional numerical model of the studied space. Some previous work concerning the evaluation of the natural light in interior spaces has already been made, but external spaces remain seldom considered, apart from solar aspects may be; our prime objective is thus to consider interior spaces and external spaces indifferently, and to submit them to the various conditions of insolation which result from both sun and sky. Those models are built with statistical distributions. But our perception of the light comes exclusively from its reflexion on materials; so those play an essential part in the exchanges between the various surfaces of the environment. The second objective is thus to take into account these complex reflexions, even through glazings. It is reached by adopting a data-processing treatment taking the theory of the radiative exchanges as a starting point. It was established by the thermal engineers more than a half-century ago, “rediscovered” and instrumented in more recent research about digital imaging by the image synthesis community. Lastly significant results are proposed; we have chosen some application examples in the luminous field, underlining the potentialities of analysis of the tool developed. They are supplemented by the prospects which the methods of treatment offer, particularly in the field of the urban microclimatology.
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Francis Miguet. Paramètres physiques des ambiances architecturales : Un modèle numérique pour la simulation de la lumière naturelle dans le projet urbain. Architecture, aménagement de l'espace. Université de Nantes, 2000. Français. ⟨tel-00546996⟩

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