Experimental analysis of the dynamics of gaseous and two-phase counterflow flames submitted to upstream modulations

Abstract : Modern combustion systems benefit from constant technological advanceswhich aim at reducing the emissions of chemical pollutants and at wideningregimes of stable operation. Further progress in the combustion field requiresa better understanding and modelling of the combustion dynamics. In thesesystems, the combustible is often injected as a liquid polydisperse spray. Experimentaldata are thus required to validate simulation tools in configurationswith flames interacting with controlled structures in multi-phase flows.This thesis aims at studying some of these fundamental interactions in wellcontrolledlaminar flows submitted to upstream modulations. Two experimentalconfigurations are investigated comprising counterflow flames and free inertjets, fed with gaseous or liquid combustibles. The flows may be submittedto upstream velocity modulations to reproduce effects of unsteadiness. Dependingon the pulsation frequency, vortices of controlled sizes are shed fromthe burner lips and convected with the flow, while interacting with the sprayand the flame.In the first part of this thesis, the dynamics of a premixed stretched flameis analysed in a stagnation flow. The study focuses on determining the flowand flame structures under upstream modulations, and principally on studyingthe dynamics of flame/vortex interactions. Different responses of the flameare identified and analysed relative to the size of the vortex ring generated atthe burner outlet. Two propagation modes for the velocity perturbations areidentified, corresponding to a bulk oscillation of the entire reaction zone orto a flame perturbed only at its periphery. This leads to a discussion on thechoice of velocity boundary conditions to conduct 1D simulations of theseconfigurations. Comparisons between simulations and measurements of thevelocity field illustrate these conclusions. Flame transfer functions betweenheat release rate and velocity perturbations imposed at the burner outlet areestablished for different flow conditions. These measurements relying on localand global chemiluminescence of the flame show again a distinct behaviourof the emission originating from the flame region close to the burner axis andthe whole flame. Mechanisms of sound production by partially and perfectlypremixed flames are also identified and analysed relative to flame/vortex interactions.In the second part, the dynamics of a spray convected by a free inert jet or impinginga diffusion flame submitted to velocity modulations is analysed. Theoriginality of this work consists in characterizing the flow and spray dynamicsusing a set of advanced diagnostics. Phase-conditioned images at different instantsin the modulation cycle are used to analyse the interactions between thegaseous phase and the spray. The spatial distribution of combustible vapourand liquid phases is determined using Laser Induced Exciplex Fluorescence(LIEF). Velocities and sizes distribution of droplets from the spray are determinedlocally by Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) and in a plane by InterferometricParticle Imaging (IPI). Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) andParticle Image Velocimetry (PIV) are also used to determine the response ofgaseous phase. These phase-conditioned analysis highlight some interactionsbetween the gaseous and liquid phases and constitute an interesting databasefor detailed simulation of these two-phase flows.
Document type :
Engineering Sciences [physics]. Ecole Centrale Paris, 2010. English. <NNT : 2010ECAP0019>

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Submitted on : Friday, December 10, 2010 - 10:34:12 AM
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Patrick Duchaine. Experimental analysis of the dynamics of gaseous and two-phase counterflow flames submitted to upstream modulations. Engineering Sciences [physics]. Ecole Centrale Paris, 2010. English. <NNT : 2010ECAP0019>. <tel-00545418>



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