Abstract : This work is dedicated to the development of hybrid assemblies based on polymers and biomolecules with or without carbon nanotubes with the aim to show their applications in different areas such as biosensors or bio-fuel cells. Firstly, poly(pyrrole-NTA)/Cu2+ was used for the elaboration of DNA or enzymatic biosensors. So, it was able to be used with its affinity partner, histidine, for the reversible immobilization of oligonucleotide probes tagged with histidines. Thanks to a detection without labelling step of the target, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, the lowest detection limit described in the literature (namely 10-15 mol L-1) for impedimetric DNA sensors was reached. Following this, an innovative and original concept was studied for the immobilization of biotinylated biomolecules on this polymer. This new interaction between NTA/Cu2+ and biotin was illustrated by biotinylated biomolecules (enzymes and oligonucleotides) anchoring. Secondly, three-dimensional architectures based on non-covalent functionalization of carbon nanotubes were considered. First of all, the multiple functionalization of carbon nanotubes by - interactions with modified pyrenes by using the most common affinity systems (adamantane/-cyclodextrine, avidine/biotin and NTA/Cu2+/histidine) was studied. These experiments elucidated numerous perspectives in the field of biosensors and biomaterials. Then, the hydrogenase electrical connection on hybrid materials based on redox polymer/carbon nanotubes was realized. Although it is only a preliminary study, the obtained results showed the efficiency of this kind of architecture for the clean energy production from dihydrogen.