Abstract : The aim of the thesis is to explain how a cumulative dynamic of urban segregation is emerging. We focus on neighbourhood effects to explain how urban factors interact with neighbourhood externalities to form this cumulative dynamic. This approach emphasizes the fundamental role of space, and its perception by the agents, on the emergence of segregation in the city. We develop a model of spatial segregation based on spatial cognition which allows us to represent configurations identified in the literature as situations where segregation is chosen by individuals or situations where individuals are exposed to segregation. We then study the spatial dimension of neighbourhood effects on the Bordeaux metropolitan area. This confirms the strong relationship between segregation and metropolisation. Neighbourhood effects contribute to the differentiation of urban space, by their influence on housing prices. Studying neighbourhood effects allows us to confirm the existence of a cumulative dynamic of segregation which is characterised by stable inequalities in the city.