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Etude des champs de flux thermique sur les composants faisant face au plasma dans un tokamak à partir de mesures de température par thermographie infrarouge

Abstract : Knowing the fields of heat fluxes on the components of a tokamak is a key element todesign these devices. The goal of this thesis is the development of a method of computation ofthose heat loads from measurements of temperature by infrared thermography. The researchwas conducted on three issues arising in current tokamaks but also future ones like ITER: themeasurement of temperature on reflecting walls, the determination of thermal properties fordeposits observed on the surface of tokamak’s components and the development of a threedimensional,non-linear computation of heat loads.A comparison of several means of pyrometry, monochromatic, bichromatic andphotothermal, is performed on an experiment of temperature measurement. We show that thismeasurement is sensitive to temperature gradients on the observed area.Layers resulting from carbon deposition by the plasma on the surface of componentsare modeled through a field of equivalent thermal resistance, without thermal inertia. Thefield of this resistance is determined, for each measurement points, from a comparison ofsurface temperature from infrared thermographs with the result of a simulation, which isbased on a mono-dimensional linear model of components. The spatial distribution of thedeposit on the component surface is obtained.Finally, a three-dimensional and non-linear computation of fields of heat fluxes, basedon a finite element method, is developed here. Exact geometries of the component, releasedfrom CAD’s design, are used. The sensitivity of the computed heat fluxes is discussedregarding the accuracy of the temperature measurements.This computation is applied to two-dimensional temperature measurements of the JETtokamak. Several components of this tokamak are modeled, such as tiles of the divertor, upperlimiter and inner and outer poloïdal limiters. The distribution of heat fluxes on the surface ofthese components is computed and studied along the two main tokamak’s directions, poloidaland toroidal. Toroidal symmetry of the heat loads from one tile to another is shown. Theinfluence of measurements spatial resolution on the calculated heat fluxes is discussed bycomparing results obtained from measurements of two systems of thermography.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, November 10, 2010 - 3:20:29 PM
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Ronan Daviot. Etude des champs de flux thermique sur les composants faisant face au plasma dans un tokamak à partir de mesures de température par thermographie infrarouge. Autre. Ecole Centrale Paris, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010ECAP0011⟩. ⟨tel-00534809⟩

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