Abstract : The present work proposes to use the tunnel current as a sensor to manipulate an object with micrometric dimensions. The use of such a sensor is proposed as an alternative to optical sensors, commonly used to measure or control the position of objects at a micrometric or nanometric scale. This work shows that the tunnel current can be controlled simultaneously with an electrostatic actuator and a piezoelectric actuator to tackle difficulties relative to the reduction of scale, such as drifts or measurement noise. For that purpose, an experimental set-up has been built-up at the GIPSA-Lab in the framework of this PhD. A robust control strategy has been implemented in this set-up to control the position of a microcantilever with an accuracy below the ångström at a speed higher than several hundred of Hertz.