Abstract : To ensure power quality and permanently, some electronic system supplies exist. These supplies are the Uninterrupted Power Supplies (UPS). An UPS like any other system may have some failures. This can be a cause of redundancy loss. This load loss causes a maintenance downtime which may represent a high cost. We propose in this thesis to work on two of the most sensitive components in the UPS namely electrolytic capacitors and lead acid batteries. In a first phase, we present the existing surveillance systems for these two components, highlighting their main drawbacks. This allows us to propose the specifications which have to be implemented for this system. For electrolytic capacitors, we detail different stages of characterization ; the aging accelerated standard experimental procedure and their associated results. On the other hand, we present the simulation results of monitoring and failure prediction system retained. We discuss the experimental validation, describing the developed system. We detail the electronic boards designed, implemented algorithms and their respective constraints for a real time implementation. Finally, for lead acid batteries, we present the simulation results of the monitoring system adopted to obtain the SOC and SOH. We describe the aging experimental procedure of charging and discharging cycles of the batteries needed to find a simple and accurate electric models. We explain the aging experimental results and in the end we give suggestions for improving our system to get a more accurate SOH.