Abstract : There are two main interests in chalcogenide glasses: their transparency in the infrared and their strong non linear properties. The microstructured optical fibers (MOF) allow single mode signal guiding and/or exacerbate non linear effects. The association of chalcogenide glasses to microstructured geometries permits to obtain single mode and/or non linear fibers in the infrared region. There are many potential applications for MOF. As passive optical component, they can be used to build lasers, for spectrometry of for nulling interferometry. As active optical component, they can be used for signal regeneration, supercontinuum sources, or military applications. The invention of a casting method to make chalcogenide MOF is explained in this thesis. This method permits to obtain the lowest optical losses in chalcogenide MOF. Many MOF were fabricated in As-Se, Te-As-Se glasses. Various fiber geometries were fabricated to cover all the applications. Then, chalcogenide MOF are tested to obtain self phase modulation (SPM) and Raman scattering. Besides, a strongly non linear composition, with good thermal properties to be molded, was determined using a design of experiments.