Biographie d'une vision du monde : les relations entre science, philosophie et politique dans la conception marxiste de J.B.S. Haldane

Simon Gouz 1
1 LEPS - Laboratoire d'Etude du Phénomène Scientifique
LIRDHIST - Laboratoire Interdisciplainaire de Didactique et d'Histoire des Sciences et Techniques
Abstract : A prominent biologist, remembered as a prominent contributor to the theoretical foundations of population genetics, JBS Haldane (1892-1964) was also a member of the Communist Party of Great Britain from 1942 to 1950. From 1937 on, he vigorously advocated the idea that Marxism was useful to scientific work.Our study focuses on Haldane's Marxist ideas and discusses the ways in which they were historically produced. We first consider the development of Haldane's intellectual positions and interpret his adoption of Marxism in the context of a dynamic search for unity between conceptions of science, philosophy and politics. Our study then focuses on the working of his Marxist thinking, which we characterize as a worldview, that is to say a mode of production and circulation of ideas. In particular, we examine the claim that Haldane made use of Marxism in his science using as evidence some of his work in population genetics and eugenics. This leads us to strengthen and generalize the case made by Hammond (2004) against Sarkar (1992) and Shapiro (1993) in favour of the impact of Haldane's Marxism on his science, and to a clarification concerning how this took place. Finally, we propose the interpretation of Haldane's Marxism as a special case of more general historical processes. We investigate the history of Marxist ideas of science and that of British scientists' political commitment at the time, and thus question the social and political roots of Haldane's Marxism.
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Simon Gouz. Biographie d'une vision du monde : les relations entre science, philosophie et politique dans la conception marxiste de J.B.S. Haldane. Autre [q-bio.OT]. Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010LYO10178⟩. ⟨tel-00530696v4⟩

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