Abstract : This thesis dealt with the realization and characterization of a GaAs/AlGaAs waveguided parametric source. Thanks to its design, based on form birefringence, it allows the parametric generation on the spectral range 1.2 - 2.4 µm. This optical property and its reduced size make it a candidate for the fabrication of an integrated optical parametric oscillator. However, during its fabrication the guided optical losses increase from 0.1 to 0.5 cm-1 due to the selective oxidation of aluminum-rich layers, turning them into AlOx. Thanks to a transmission electron microscopy study we have first characterized the structural and chemical properties of the AlOx and the GaAs/AlOx interfaces. We have thus observed an increase of the interfaces roughness and a local modification of the GaAs layers induced by the oxidation step. In a second time, we have characterized some of the waveguides optical properties. A semi-analytical calculation has allowed us to establish the propagation losses value, in good agreement with the experimental measurements, induced by the GaAs/AlOx interfaces roughness. We have then established the optimum oxidation conditions by systematically measuring the propagation losses. We have characterized the performances of our source measuring for the first time parametric amplification in a semi-conductor waveguide. The measured parametric gain coefficient, compatible with the parametric oscillation, has leaded us to design, fabricate and characterize various resonant cavities.