Habiter et aménager les centres anciens. Les reconfigurations du rapport des acteurs à la vieille ville par le classement au patrimoine mondial : une comparaison entre Harar en Éthiopie et Alep en Syrie

Abstract : The heritage process in urban centres transforms the relationship between actors and the historic town : first, the amount of their daily investments, in other words their dwelling ; then their mobilization, that is to say the ability to act on this urban space ; finally, all the strategies they implement for that. The thesis questions itself about the meaning given to the heritage process by the institutional actors and analyzes the way it uses it to implement their policy. Moreover, the thesis questions itself too about the way the other actors of the city — inhabitants, users, economic actors — take their position in keeping with their district transformation, in regard to their own interest and to their capacity to act or to react. Aleppo in Syria and Harar in Ethiopia, two cities of world heritage which have been classified 20 years apart, are the objects of this study. To compare one town with the other one highlights four different positionings faced with heritage process. The instrumental position considers the heritage a tool to legitimate actions on urban spaces ; above all, it is the position of institutional actors. On the other hand, the social position turns heritage process into a means to improve inhabitants living conditions and to maintain their way of life. This position is against the conservative one that see heritage as a tool to safeguard the built environment which is the essential support, in their eyes, of the identity and history of the town. The economic position, as for it, bets on tourism as an essential tool of heritage development and consequently of local economy development ; to maintain this position, the town requires sufficient ressources but in that case some other ordinary activities may disappear. Finally, the cultural position differentiates itself from institutional heritage process ; it is the position shared by the inhabitants and the users of the old city which, through their way of life and their daily practices, create a living and popular heritage which jeopardizes the institutional heritage process.
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Pauline Bosredon. Habiter et aménager les centres anciens. Les reconfigurations du rapport des acteurs à la vieille ville par le classement au patrimoine mondial : une comparaison entre Harar en Éthiopie et Alep en Syrie. Géographie. Université Rennes 2, 2009. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010REN20017⟩. ⟨tel-00525518⟩

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