Abstract : A vigorous trade across the borders of biological and physical sciences is developing around new methods and tools, and around new phenomena. The objects at the heart of this multidisciplinary overlapping are numerous. In a non exhaustive manner, the objects of study can be nanoparticles, cells, or even smaller and more elementary objects such as molecules. For applications in the field of microelectronics as for studies of fundamental biological mechanisms, the integration of these objects of interest at the single object scale is essential. In the frame of this Ph.D. thesis, the objective we pursued is the development of a technological tool-box allowing the assembly of micro- and nano-objects at pre-determined locations of a solid surface, in a simple, reliable, low-cost and parallel manner. For this development, we focused on gold nanoparticles 100 nm in diameter, bacterial cells and DNA molecules in particular. We will describe the strategies developed relying on soft-lithography and their potentialities for different applications in the fields of medical analysis and sensing.