Former l'esprit scientifique en privilégiant l'initiative des élèves dans une démarche s'appuyant sur l'épistémologie et l'histoire des sciences

Abstract : Numerous studies in the field of science teaching, as well as various national and international reports, point to what is lacking and biased in the teaching practice in terms of scientific approaches and formation of the scientific mind. An empirical and inductivist approach, the fear of pupils' conceptions, hypotheses and suggestions, usually lead teachers to have pupils carry out activities in which they only acknowledge facts or follow instructions, instead of carrying out authentic investigation sequences. The history of science and epistemology are questioned to both know the paths followed by scientists when elaborating knowledge, and bring into light the epistemological tradition still perceptible in the teaching of science. This epistemological tradition emanates from the historic debates and quarrels related to the role played by hypotheses in the elaboration of knowledge via the inductive, deductive, or hypothetico-deductive ways. All these studies, completed by an analysis of the works of psychologists and educators, allow to define the scientific mind as associating the capacity to be creative and controlling (“guesswork and checkwork”). This study thus proposes a tool privileging these two constituents when pupils' initiative is strongly encouraged. This tool associates a model of hypothetico-deductive approach with instructions on how to use it, inciting teachers to base their progressions on the pupils' propositions. Detailed examples of such sequences accompany the tool. The results obtained thanks to pre- and post-tests, together with answers to questionnaires, show a significant increase of the scientific mind of the pupils who experimented that teaching. Those results, which emanate from biology teaching in France, are corroborated by those of a study led with the same tool used when teaching physics in Switzerland.
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Submitted on : Sunday, September 26, 2010 - 11:21:31 AM
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Jean-Yves Cariou. Former l'esprit scientifique en privilégiant l'initiative des élèves dans une démarche s'appuyant sur l'épistémologie et l'histoire des sciences. Education. Université de Genève, 2009. Français. ⟨tel-00521174⟩

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