Abstract : Directional detection of galactic Dark Matter is a promising search strategy for discriminating WIMP events from background ones. This can be achieved by searching for a correlation of the WIMP signal with the solar motion around the galactic center, which happens to be roughly in the direction of the Cygnus constellation. The major advantage of directional detection is the fact that the angular distribution of WIMP events is pointing towards the Cygnus constellation while the background one is isotropic in the galactic rest frame. This opens the possibility to really identify the WIMP signal as such. A statistical map-based analysis is presented, showing the possibility to extract from data samples of forthcoming directional detectors, both the main direction of the incoming events, thus proving the galactic origin of the signal, and the number of WIMP events contained in the map thus constraining the WIMP-nucleus cross-section. Eventually, the last chapter presents the MIMAC project aiming at developping a large TPC for directional detection. Both the energy and the track of the recoiling nucleus need to be precisely measured in the low pressure gaseous detector. Energy measurements down to sub-keV are presented together with 3D track reconstruction of recoiling nuclei.