La médiation de l'archéologie à la télévision : la construction d'une relation au passé

Abstract : At present time, the occasions of “meetings” with men from the past (or at least with their representatives) multiply: the archaeology exposure does not only present the objects anymore, but makes discover the visitor, the lifestyle of the former inhabitants of a place; the historical reconstitutions make “relife” the men from the past and put in stage horse races and ancestral gestures in front of the public eyes; and finally, guides of historical places take the appearance of characters, supporting the immersion and the attachment to the place. In the same way, the TV shows about archaeology seem to erase the scientist and the vestiges of the device, offering a more direct relation to the past and to the man from the past (for example the docudrama Homo Sapiens, by Jacques Malaterre). This research questions the relation to the past, built by the television programs about archaeology. How these devices can create at the same time, a scientific and a symbolic relation to the past? Which are the effects of this new form of mediation which pretends to be erased? On the contrary, which are the effects of the affirmation of the mediation device (in the documentaries and reports)? To answer these questions, we adopted a “laminated” method, in “funnel”. A corpus of reference joins all the programs about archaeology, diffused between 1995 and 2008, on french hertzian television. Its statistical analysis makes it possible to draw the general tendencies of the representation of archaeology on television. Then, the semiopragmatic analysis of a test corpus of 13 emissions about Pompeii, leads to the constitution of an analysis model of the mediation to the past and to the constitution of a tool, allowing the analysis of a great number of films. Lastly, a third corpus of 51 emissions allows the checking of this model and leads to the identification of four types of construction of relation to the past. The contribution of the study is triple: 1) it brings knowledge about the object of research itself, about the most common representations of archaeology on television; 2) it proposes a methodology and an analysis model of the mediation based on tools coming from the semiopragmatic; 3) finally, from a theoretical point of view, this research makes it possible to consider the mediation, not as a “social bond” or a “interval”, but as a strategy of modulation of distance, thanks to the intervention of “mediation figures”. These figures are referential elements which crystallize the social representations and which have roles to play in the enunciation and the narrativity of the program
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Linguistics. Université d'Avignon; Université du Québec (Montréal), 2010. French


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Céline Schall. La médiation de l'archéologie à la télévision : la construction d'une relation au passé. Linguistics. Université d'Avignon; Université du Québec (Montréal), 2010. French. <tel-00512256v2>

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