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Modélisation des écoulements diphasiques bioactifs dans les installations de stockage de déchets

Abstract : The main objectives of bioreactor landfills are to accelerate anaerobic degradation of waste in order to minimize the environmental impacts, to optimize biogas production and to minimize the time of waste stabilization as well as the costs and time of monitoring of landfill sites after operation. One of the most important and cost-effective method to achieve these objectives is liquid addition and management. The objectives of bioreactor landfills could not be achieved without enough knowledge of its hydraulic, thermal and biological parameters and processes and the effects of each of them on the others. Site observations and data and laboratory experiments as well as numerical models could help to develop the knowledge of these phenomena and processes, which is the objective of this work. In this thesis we study the coupled hydro-thermo-biological behavior of bioreactor landfills in the anaerobic phase in the laboratory and using site data of two bioreactor landfills in France and developing a numerical coupled model. The laboratory experiments help us to know the effect of such important parameters as saturation and density of wastes on anaerobic degradation and biogas production. The site data help us to know the variations of saturation and temperature of wastes in a bioreactor landfill in different depths, as two key factors of anaerobic degradation and biogas production. Site analysis helps also to estimate some parameters as hydraulic and thermal conductivity of wastes, which are hard to measure in situ without disturbing the landfill site. The numerical model helps us to study the coupled behavior of bioreactor landfills during leachate recirculation, as well as on the long term during many years. The interdependence of various parameters which influence waste degradation and thermo-biological phenomena in a bioreactor landfills is the main reason of development of this coupled model. This model makes it possible to study each key parameter, as saturation and temperature, as a function of other parameters. Laboratory experiments and site data analysis lead to develop a biological model of degradation to be coupled with a two-phase flow model of liquid and gas. The three parts of this thesis, laboratory experiments, site data analysis and development of the numerical coupled model were carried out in parallel and in a complementary manner. Laboratory experiments as well as site data analysis showed us the importance of some parameters to be considered in the numerical model and coupled behavior. In return numerical model showed the importance of considering the temperature dependence behavior of microbial activity and the necessity of biomass, VFA and COD analysis in laboratory experiments. The analysis of hydraulic and thermal site data led to estimate parameters which are hard to measure in situ or in the laboratory, as hydraulic and thermal conductivity of waste, saturation, thermal conductivity of cover layer and heat capacity of waste. The numerical coupled hydro-thermo-biological model seems to be efficient enough to predict biogas and methane production in bioreactor and classical landfills and to reproduce their correct behavior
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Shabnam Gholamifard. Modélisation des écoulements diphasiques bioactifs dans les installations de stockage de déchets. Alimentation et Nutrition. Université Paris-Est, 2009. Français. ⟨NNT : 2009PEST1015⟩. ⟨tel-00512102⟩

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