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Exploitation des Capacités de Radiolocalisation des Transmissions Ultra-Large Bande dans les Réseaux Sans-Fil

Abstract : Many recent applications rely on the capability of communication means in delivering precise location information. In this context, the intrinsic properties of the Impulse Radio Ultra Wideband (IR-UWB) technology can be exploited: high multipath resolution, fine temporal precision enabling Time Of Flight (TOF) estimation and synchronization... UWB, which is also adapted to mobile, distributed and infrastructure-less solutions (ad hoc), discloses new fascinating perspectives in terms of networking. Regarding Low Data Rate WPAN applications (e.g. the IEEE 802.15.4a standard, with rates up to 1Mbps), fused communication and location functionalities based on low-cost and low-consumption UWB devices present overwhelming features compared to existing technologies (e.g. Zigbee...). The proposed work addresses the global UWB localization problem in wireless networks. Some general ideas are emphasized, such as the necessity to take into account a prior knowledge related to the UWB physical layer, exploiting multipath diversity or modern network embodiments (from both protocol and topology points of view). At first, the errors that can affect basic radiolocation metrics (Time Of Arrival, Time Difference Of Arrival) are characterized and modelled. These errors can be independent of the physical layer (clock drifts, protocol transactions, etc.) or can result from severe propagation conditions (e.g. Non-Line Of Sight situations). Then, the detection performance of two representative low-complexity UWB receivers (e.g. 1 bit direct sampling) is evaluated under realistic environments. We also recommend the use of original positioning techniques (e.g. distributed maximization of the joint log-likelihood of the range estimates, fingerprinting, mitigation of the deterministic biases induced by single-path refractions) or tracking techniques (e.g. advanced Bayesian filtering) adapted to Non-Line Of Sight situations. Finally, some preliminary experimental results obtained in the lower band ([0.5:1]GHz) are provided and allow us to illustrate some of the discussed points.
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Contributor : Benoît Denis <>
Submitted on : Tuesday, August 3, 2010 - 6:39:59 PM
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Benoît Denis. Exploitation des Capacités de Radiolocalisation des Transmissions Ultra-Large Bande dans les Réseaux Sans-Fil. Traitement du signal et de l'image [eess.SP]. INSA de Rennes, 2005. Français. ⟨tel-00508437⟩

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