Fiabilité et précision en stéréoscopie : application à l'imagerie aérienne et satellitaire à haute résolution

Abstract : This thesis is a contribution to stereovision written in the framework of the MISS (Mathematics for Stereoscopic Space Imaging) project launched by CNES in cooperation with several university laboratories in 2007. This project has the ambitious goal to model a stereo satellite, using two almost simultaneous views of the Earth with small baseline in urban areas. Its main goal is to get an automatic chain of urban reconstruction at high resolution from such pairs of views. The project faces fundamental problems that this thesis aims at solving. The first problem is the rejection of matches that could occur just by chance, particularly in shadows or occlusions, and the rejection of moving objects (vehicles, pedestrians, etc.). This thesis proposes a method for rejecting false matches based on the a contrario methodology. The mathematical consistency of this rejection method will be shown and it will be validated on exact simulated pairs, on ground truths provided by CNES, and pairs of classical benchmark (Middlebury). The reliable accepted matches reach a 40% to 90% density in the tested pairs. The second issue is the accuracy. Indeed, the type of considered stereoscopy requires a very low baseline between the two views, which are visually almost identical. To get a proper relief, an extremely accurate shift must be estimated, and the noise level that allows this accuracy must be calibrated. In this thesis a subpixel disparity estimation method is proposed, which will be proved optimal by experimental and mathematical arguments. These results extend and improve the results obtained by the CNES method MARC. In particular, it will be shown on the Middlebury benchmark that the theoretical accuracy allowed by the noise exactly corresponds to the accuracy obtained on the reliable matches. Although these results are obtained within the framework of a specific acquisition system (low baseline stereoscopy on aerial or satellite images), all results are used in a general stereo framework, as shown in many experiments.
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Neus Sabater. Fiabilité et précision en stéréoscopie : application à l'imagerie aérienne et satellitaire à haute résolution. Mathématiques [math]. École normale supérieure de Cachan - ENS Cachan, 2009. Français. ⟨tel-00505143⟩

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