Cartographie et mesure de la biodiversité du Mont Ventoux. Approche par Système d'Information Géographique et Télédétection, préconisations méthodologiques et application pour l'aménagement forestier

Abstract : Data resulting from the remote sensing coupled to geographical information systems (GIS) are of great potential for forest management. The aim of this research is to design a cartography of the forest species which can be usable for assessing biodiversity at a fine and accurate resolution. The studied site is the southern slope of the “Mont Ventoux”, a Mediterranean mountain presenting a large forest biodiversity. We discriminated forest species using SPOT 5 data, using supervised and non supervised classification techniques. The relevance of these methods for the cartography of the forest cover is evaluated and discussed, the objective being to identify the optimal conditions according to the spatial resolution and the spectral band for the discrimination of the major forest species of the Mont Ventoux. In a second general section, we propose an original method for measuring biodiversity. We estimated spatial biodiversity aspects using 4 indices (Shannon, Simpson, Richness, and Dominance) and two descriptors: the normalized index of vegetation (NDVI) and the forest species diversity. Using various images at different spatial resolutions, a systematic process of aggregation and an original resampling of pixels, we were able to identify the amount of 'real' biodiversity (alpha and beta) variability due to the spatial structure. This new method is probably the first step for eliminating the well-known MAUP (Modifiable Areal Unit Problem), due to the spatial support. Moreover, we discuss our capacity to point out a “pertinent scale” for diversity measurement, concept which is discussed and highlighted according to a few different spatial support shapes and the biodiversity indices we processed.
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Ilène Mafhoud. Cartographie et mesure de la biodiversité du Mont Ventoux. Approche par Système d'Information Géographique et Télédétection, préconisations méthodologiques et application pour l'aménagement forestier. Ecologie, Environnement. Université d'Avignon, 2009. Français. ⟨tel-00502464⟩

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